Sky deities

These deities or gods presided over the elements of sky, light and heavens. They are related to the periods of a day and night, to winds, clouds, stars and planets. Sky deities are also associated with air, rain, snow and rainbows.

Aeolus (Aiolos) - god and ruler of the winds. He was encountered by Odysseus and his crew in the Odyssey. They spent for about a month on his island and became friends with the god. When they departed, Aeolus trapped all other winds except the one which would lead them to Ithaca. He trapped them inside a box and gave it to Odysseus and told him not to open it.

Aether - primeval god of the upper air. He was one of the first-born gods who personified the pure bright upper air, below Uranus(heaven), that only gods could breathe.

Anemoi - gods of the winds. Most known were Boreas(god of the north wind and of winter), Eurus (god of the unlucky east or southeast wind), Notus (god of the south wind and bringer of storms and autumn) and variously Zephyrus (god of the west wind and bringer of light spring in early summer). These were known as the famous Four Winds. However, there were other minor winds also, mostly representing winds of mixed directions, such as Northeast and Northwest.

Arce - messenger of the Titans and twin sister of Iris. She had sided with the Titans and was, after the war, stripped of her wings by Zeus and sent to Tartarus.

Astraeus - Titan god of stars and the art of astrology. He was also a god of dusk and a father of the four winds and the stars of heaven by Eos(goddess of dawn).

Astra Planeti - gods of the five wandering stars or planets. They were known as Phaenon (god of Kronion, the planet Saturn), Phaethon (god of Dios, the planet Jupiter), Pyroeis (god of Areios, the planet Mars), Hesperus (god of Venus, the evening star), Eosphorus (god of Venus, the morning star), and Stilbon (god of Hermaon, the planet Mercury).

Aurai - nymphs of cooling breeze, daughters of the winds Boreas, Eurus, Notus and Zephyrus. Most known of these was Aura, a goddess of the breeze and the fresh air of early morning.

Chaos - the endless form of nothingness from which everything else sprang. He was the first primeval state of existence and was, according to Hesiod, followed by Erebus, Nyx, Gaea and Eros.

Chione - goddess of snow and a daughter of Boreas, wind of the north, and Oreithyia. Chione had a sister Cleopatra and winged brothers Zetes and Kalais.

Ersa (Herse) - goddess of the morning dew. She was a daughter of Zeus and Selene and had a sister Pandia.

Hemera - primeval goddess of daytime and daylight. She was a daughter of Erebus and Nyx and was a sister and wife of Aether. Hemera was closely related with her mother Nyx, where the two were constantly changing as day and night.

Hesperides - three goddesses of evening and sunset who tended the Hera's sacred garden in the far western corner of the world, located in Libya or Atlas mountains in North Africa. They were mentioned as daughters of Atlas or sometimes as daughters of primeval goddess Nyx. They were encountered by Perseus who came for kibsis, the only sack able to contain Medusa's head. Hesperides also featured in the Eleventh labor of Heracles, where the hero had to obtain the golden apples.

Iris - goddess of rainbows and a divine messenger of the gods. She was the missing link between the gods and mankind and was also referred as a personal messenger of Hera. She traveled with the speed of wind throughout different realms, known as heavens, waters, earth and underworld.

Menae - goddesses of the fifty lunar months of a four-year period of Olympic games. Their number were fifty which represented each phase of the moon during these four years. It was the basic unit of measurement of time for Ancient Greeks.

Nephelai - nymphs of clouds and rain. They were originally Oceanid nymphs, daughters of Oceanus, who started bringing water to heavens in cloud formations. The Nephelai also supported the earth deities and their rivers, springs and other fresh water brothers and sisters by pouring rains upon them.

Pandia - goddess of brightness and the full moon. She was a daughter of Zeus and Selene and had a sister Ersa who was, according to some sources, interpreted as the same character.

Pleiades - goddesses of the constellation Pleiades. But before, they were mountain nymphs and daughters of Atlas and a sea-nymph Pleione. Their names were Alcyone, Sterope, Celaeno, Electra, Maia, Merope, and Taygete. They were chased by desirous demi-god Orion who wanted them at any cost. They ended their life by grief or were, according to alternative stories, protected by Zeus who placed them among stars, known as the constellation Pleiades.

Selene - goddess of the moon. She was a daughter of Hyperion and Theia and had a brother Helios and a sister Eos. Her great love was a mortal man called Endymion who was granted immortality and eternal youth by Zeus and was placed in a state of eternal slumber near Mount Latmos, where his bride came every night to consort with him.

Uranus - primeval god of the heavens and sky. He was a son and a consort of Gaea and from their union came the twelve Titans, three Cyclopes and three Hekatoncheires. Uranus was also responsible for the birth of Erinyes, Giants, Meliae and Aphrodite, when his blood was spilled upon the earth.