Ancient Greece, the birth of western world

Ancient Greeks influenced the modern western world through literature, various arts such as painting, sculpturing and architecture, as well as through performance of various plays and music. Not to forget democracy, philosophy, astrology, biology, mathematics and physics. The knowledge of great individuals, such as Pythagoras, Socrates, Aristotle and Plato, is still taught in schools and universities. Cities which had withstood the powers of nature and disasters of war for more than a few millennia still stand for us to see. Many artifacts of that time were excavated and brought to museums, many texts re-written, and many stories passed through generations. It was a really remarkable civilization far ahead of its time, whose charm and knowledge will probably live forever.

However, it was not all green for the Greeks who had gone through difficult times during the dark ages. Before dark ages, which are believed to be from 1200BC to 750BC, the tribes (Aeolians, Achaeans and Ionians), which lived in Greek Peninsula, didn't have anything in common. No history, no connections and even no common language. During this age, when these tribes were threatened by Dorians, they abandoned all major cities with the exception of Athens. They migrated constantly and old Mycenaean economic and social structures with the hereditary rule and strict class hierarchy were forgotten. In later ages from 900BC to 750BC when the score was settled and war was no longer in place, these four tribes(Aeolians, Achaeans, Ionians and Dorians) eventually became one nation and adopted common language, but there was still a lot to be done before they could eventually start progressing again. They re-learned writing by using Phoenician alphabet instead of Mycenaean linear B script and adopted new socio-political institutions which eventually lead to democracy. During these ages Greek population finally recovered and organized themselves in city-states. Through a complex social organization they had found a way to coexist with each other, because these states contained citizens of different classes, foreign residents and slaves. This was necessary for the equality of inhabitants, regardless of their status. Soon, city-states spread throughout the Mediterranean Sea to the northern Africa and Middle east. Several city-states gained their rank through domination of commerce in the Mediterranean, as well as with expanding aboard to Africa and Middle East, and therefore began emerging as dominant cultural centres. Their culture and knowledge spread everywhere, while the Greeks themselves entered the golden age in now known as Classical age of Greece.

If you want to know more about Classical period, click here and for Hellenistic period of Ancient Greece, click here.

Mythology in Greek society

It's fair to say that the Ancient Greeks used mythological explanations for everything that they could not explain with their current understanding. Therefore, in almost all of their arts and studies can be found traces of their mythology whether it were statues, paintings, models, music, drama, literature or astrology, philosophy and biology.

Historical sites of Ancient Greece

There are still many historical sites of Ancient Greece standing to this day. Some of their works like sculpturing, paintings and architecture can still be found today in Historical sites of many Greek cities.

Argos argos
One of the oldest cities of Ancient Greece
Athens athens
The city-state of endless possibilities
Corinth corinth
Prominent mercantile city-state
Crete crete
Home island of the Minoan civilization
Delphi delphi
The most important religious site of Ancient Greece
Mycenae mycenae
Famous for its military power and unique political system
Olympia olympia
Known and popular for its olympic games
Sparta sparta
Famous for its military power and unique political system
Thebes thebes
Powerful city-state with corruption at its peak