Athens became the most important city-state in Ancient Greece after the dark ages. Since it had democratic government, which gave citizens the opportunity to excel in any direction and they chose Athena, a goddess of wisdom and warfare, for a patron of the city, they equally focused on education in studies, arts and science, as on training to become a warrior. The city of Athens soon became famed for their buildings, literature, poetry, drama, school system, government and their way of life. From all over the world people were coming to Athens to trade, to live or just out of curiosity.
Athenians were people driven for excellence. They wanted everything, they made, to be perfect. After changing government from oligarchy to direct democracy, citizens of Athens were able to make their environment suitable for developing talents and perfection. However, not all citizens were able to attend Assembly which was the place where the citizens came to vote. It was only allowed for male citizens over the age of eighteen. Women, children and foreign residents were not allowed to attend assembly, not to mention slaves. And for a male person to become a citizen would require to be born of both Athenian parents and also be properly educated and free-minded.
Therefore boys were educated quite differently than girls. While girls learned at home from their mothers how to be perfect housewives and mothers, boys were sent to schools where they could learn public speaking, reading, writing, drama, math and music. At the age of fourteen they were sent to higher school where they learned math, various studies, science and politics. When they reached eighteen, they were sent to military school for two years. After that they were free to choose which direction they will pursue. Many chose to be soldiers and athletes, but others believed that there had to be a balance between body and mind and chose literature, science, architecture, music, philosophy, etc...
Monuments of Ancient Athens
The most important monument in Athens is definitely the Acropolis which stands in the high ground and served as iconic symbol and sanctuary from invasions. Within these walls Athenians have built temples and buildings, the most famous of which being the Parthenon, a temple dedicated to goddess Athena. On the south slope of the Acropolis they had built Theatre of Dionysus, a god of wine and pleasure. In honor to the gods they held a religious festival for ten days, in which Athenians filled the theatre and watched plays of their favourite playwrights and poets. A Temple of Zeus and the arch of Hadrian, a Roman emperor, can also be found on the site itself. these two monuments were built in Roman period.